Monday, January 20, 2020

A Streetcar Named Desire: Visual, Aural and Spatial :: English Literature

Streetcar Named Desire: Visual, Aural and Spatial The sound for ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ is effective but this could be built upon to improve it and create a more intense atmosphere. The stage directions do state when sound should be used, they usually state the piece of music and the way in which it should be played, for example â€Å"Blue piano and the hot trumpet sound louder†. I think that if an amalgamation of types of music such as; instrumental music, recorded sounds and vocal pieces. This would provide a range of sounds and would be more interesting for the audience. More sound could be used to reflect the action taking place in the play, an example being when, in Scene Ten, when Blanche is trying to get hold of Shep Huntleigh and is getting more and more distressed this would be an appropriate time for some fast paced music to enhance her panic. The space on the stage could have been used a lot more effectively. The actors could use the whole of the stage, split certain parts of it up to represent different rooms and scenes, also the changing of space to create dramatic effect. A good example of a use of this changing space is in Scene Ten before Blanche gets raped by Stanley, the scene could start with the space room sized and then as he becomes more dominating over her it shrinks to show how trapped she feels. The scenery in the play needs to be relevant to the era and surroundings of New Orleans, realistic enough so that the audience know where they are and are interesting but not so much that it takes the focus of the play away from the actors, the scenery should be life like, for example the flat, if it is flat like then the audience can relate with the characters and it can make it feel more real. The era of the play is also set by the costume that the actors wear to suggest the time and conditions that the characters live in, the costumes should also dictate the class of the people in the play as there are clear divides. For example Blanche would wear long frilly summer dresses to show that she is still living in the past and wears clothes that draw attention to herself and most importantly, make her look attractive. Blanche’s make up would be highlighted to show her vanity but also to give the appearance that she is younger than she is. The scenery would show to the audience exactly what it is that she

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Justifying The State Essay

Q1 If the state is not a voluntary organisation, how can one be under any obligation to obey its commands? This is a question about justifying the state. What D. D. Raphael calls † the grounds of political obligation.1 If the state can be justified somehow then so can the commands it makes, whether it is voluntary or not. This would be a state built on individual consent; obligation to the commands of the state would flow from that consent. This essay will discuss the possibility of justifying of the state through the idea of a social contract. The state when it creates a law draws a line one cannot cross without consequences. For clarity I am talking about a serious law, specifically one that obviously has a moral base, the law against murder for example. An individualist might say ‘I have no intention of crossing that line anyway because I believe it would be morally wrong to do so’. The law in his case may as well not exist. Just by not breaking a law it can appear as though he supports it. When what he might agree with is what the law defends/upholds /represents, and that is the moral principle behind it. This is one reason why some people appear to uphold the law when in fact all they may be doing is following a personal moral code. or simply agreeing with the basic rational belief shared by most people that ‘murder is wrong or (maybe) tax for the NHS is good’ for example. I suggest this analogy can be applied when questioning many commands of the state. When I obey the state by paying taxes, I may not be doing so because I am obligated too by law but for other reasons including moral ones. Socialists (as do many others) might argue that they are happy to pay more tax in return for a wider societal benefit that includes all, i.e. as in the National Health Service. Therefore a socialist might argue that she paid her National Insurance not because the law obligates her too, but because it ‘fits her moral attitudes and outlook anyway’. The fact that she has no legal right to refuse to pay becomes relevant in this case only if she actually doesn’t. The above argument is Lockean to the extent that it â€Å"appeal[s] to the idea of individual consent.†2 It is also in part my own view, which is (I think) essentially individualist in nature, though not libertarian. The relevance of my own view to this essay is that when thinking about this question, I realised that I had no idea what my own moral position was regarding some of the most crucial problems and contradictions of political philosophy. Many of these questions require (I think) a moral stance in order to be able to make sense of them. This may seem like a non-academic approach as if I am personalising or reducing this essay to subjective notions, however the questions and issues of political philosophy are in large part moral questions and issues that therefore have as a basis, personal moral opinions. Locke’s view according to Wolff is that obligations to the institutions of the state â€Å"must be justified in terms of the will, choices or decisions of those over whom they have authority.†3 Justification of the institutions of the state that enforce obligation then is reliant on the idea that personal autonomy is of premier value. Will Kymlicka defines this as the belief that the individual is ‘morally prior’ to the community. One objection to this is the communitarian argument that the individual is not ‘morally prior’ to the community instead individuals are a ‘product of the community.’4 There are other objectors to Locke’s idea that autonomy is the primary value. Wolff writes that Bentham considered â€Å"the primary value is not autonomy but happiness †¦ whether we consent to the state is irrelevant.† 5 This utilitarian argument is that the ‘happiness’ of society, as a whole is of more value than personal autonomy or the happiness of the few or one. And that therefore one has a duty to obey the commands of the state as it pursues this goal. So if the state decides that having nuclear weapons is for the greater good (happiness) then I would be obligated to pay my share of tax for them whatever I thought. I may be against nuclear weapons or the military in general for moral reasons (pacifism for example) but my moral objection is sacrificed for the greater happiness. The problem political philosopher’s face is finding ways to solve issues like the one above. Just how does one justify the state? One theory is the idea of ‘the social contract.’ Wolff here defines the ‘project of the social contract theory.’ â€Å"The project of showing that individuals consent to the state lies behind the idea of social contract theory. If, somehow or other, it can be shown that every individual has consented to the state, or formed a contract with the state, or made a contract with each other to create a state, then the problem appears to be solved.†6 It is difficult to support the idea that the state, and thereby its commands and responding obligations, can be justified by the theory of a social contract. â€Å"The theory of a social contract tries to justify political obligation as being based on an implicit promise, like the obligation to obey the rules of a voluntary association.†7 If there were such a contract (based on the idea that the state is a voluntary organisation) the problem of individual obligation to the state would be solved. One could join (or leave) institutions of the state at will, and not be subject to state penalties. This is clearly not so. To clarify this further I can ask a different question: how much like a voluntary association is the state? The consensus among political philosophers is I think that the state is not a voluntary organisation. To be born is to be joined to it. As Raphael says â€Å"the universality of the states jurisdiction makes its compulsory character more pervasive and more evident. â€Å"8 Individuals are inextricably linked to it in many ways, for example through the financial/legal institutions. Neither of these institutions are voluntary, they both carry obligations that are enforceable by law. For a comparison I will examine what I think a voluntary organisation is. The obligations I have to the UEA regarding my degree, I agreed to honour. They were stated, I accepted. This does not mean I think the UEA is perfect. Just because I am obligated, (I agreed to the UEA rules) does not mean I cannot criticise the parking problem. What is important is that I chose to join. My obligations to the UEA are voluntary, and I can withdraw from them voluntarily and leave the university should I choose. This is not possible in the case of the state. â€Å"[I] am subject to the rules whether I like it or not.†9 As a general philosophical attitude I am ‘nervous’ or sceptical of organisations people are forced to join or have to remain joined to, this includes the idea of a state. This could be framed as, (if this sentence makes sense) ‘I do not like the idea that there is a group I am unable not to join’. These reasons might help to explain why I am ‘generally sceptical’ of some of the motives of our own state. So where does this leave us? The above contentions highlight some of the problems of the social contract theory. The central objection to it is that the state is not voluntary therefore there can be no ‘mutually agreed contract.’ Nor has there historically ever been one. As Wolff observes, if there ever was a social contract â€Å"What is the evidence? Which museum is it in?†10 The idea of a hypothetical contract is an attempt to solve this problem. It does not rely on any formal notion of â€Å"actual consent, be it historical, express, or tacit.†11 The hypothetical contract relies on hypothetical consent. If hypothetical consent were possible it would provide a moral reason for political obligation. That is the ingredient the question this essay is discussing implicitly implies is missing. The idea asks us to imagine a position from where we could successfully negotiate a social contract. Rawl’s idea is a very complex one that effects many issues. In his Theory of Justice, Rawls sets out primarily to establish â€Å"what moral principles should govern the basic structure of a just society.†12 Rawls Theory of Justice suggests a set of specific moral principles that he hopes will achieve this consensus view. It is these principles that critics of the theory in the main object to. What they are concerned with is the kind of society that would emerge from behind any veil of ignorance whatever its character. For the purpose of this essay the idea of a ‘veil of ignorance’ which is subject to many conditions, is the device Rawls uses to argue for consent. If people can agree on what would be just, (which he argues is possible using the principles he suggests) from behind a ‘veil of ignorance’ the consent reached would be a voluntary contract. Again the problem remains, what principles really constitute a ‘just society’ are not clear. Objections to Rawls ideas include the ‘libertarian critique.’ Kukathas and Pettit13 argue that for principled libertarians like Nozick the state that would emerge from Rawls’s theory â€Å"is bound to seem inherently evil.†14 Nozick’s objections are based on his libertarian view that â€Å"Individuals have rights, and there are things no person or group may do to them (without violating their rights)†15 To conclude is this essay is very difficult; the argument I have tried to demonstrate is that one cannot be under any obligation to obey the commands of the state using the social contract model. I have argued that the social contract fails because it is not consensual. I have also tried to show that the idea of hypothetical contract cannot work because the ‘veil of ignorance’ still does not produce consent because people cannot agree on what the principles of a just state are. One can only be obligated to obey the commands of the state (I think) when its principles are consensual. Bibliography Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, (Polity Press 1990) Kymlicka, Will, Contemporary Political philosophy. Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, (Macmillan press 1990) Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, (oxford University Press 1996) Colin Dunlop His II Political Philosophy Dr Kathleen Stock 04-04-03 Q1 If the state is not a voluntary organisation, how can one be under any obligation to obey its commands? 1 Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, p175 2 Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, p38 3 Ibid.p38 4 See Kymlicka, Will, Contemporary Political philosophy, Ch5 (I think) his discussion â€Å"multiculturalism and communitarianism.† 5 Ibid.p38 6 Ibid.p43 7 Raphael, D D, Problems of Political Philosophy, p182 8 Ibid.p181 9 Ibid.p181 10 Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, p44 11 Ibid.p44 12 Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, p36 13 Ibid. See chapter 5 † The Libertarian Critique† 14 Ibid.p74 15 Robert Nozick quoted by Chandran Kukathas and Philip Pettit in, Rawls, A Theory of Justice and its Critics, p76

Friday, January 3, 2020

Essay on Operation Management - 1445 Words

Wolf Motors Case Study 1. What recommendations would you make to John Wolf with respect to structuring the supplier relationship process for the Wolf Motors dealership network? The recommendations I would suggest for structuring the supplier relationship process for the Wolf Motors dealership network are Wolf Motors should consider a centralized corporate level Materials Management System to consolidate buying decisions for each of the 4 dealerships. This would facilitate greater leveraging with suppliers for consistent quality-control. They should study, calculate and make effective decisions on the materials that should be brought for each of the four dealerships instead of allowing each dealer to do it on their own. An automated†¦show more content†¦Wolf has to work with the distributor to identify and select only those brands or products that meet the quality standards which they have set. An objective would be to reduce the number of suppliers in the purchasing process by identifying a single source distributor for as many supply and product acquisitions as possible. The number of transactions could also be minimized so that it would be helpfu l in maintaining the desired inventory levels allowing the Wolf to realize the additional cost savings. Lubricants can be available at many places outside the company for the less cost but whereas the GM parts can be get only from the company and therefore the feasibility is less for GM parts where the lubricants can be got from various suppliers that to for a very less cost. 3. How can supply chain design and integration help John Wolf reduce investment and space requirements while maintaining adequate service levels? Using Supply-Chain Management to reduce space and investment requirements while maintaining adequate service levels is that when an effective supply-chain management, Wolf Motors can streamline the acquisition processes and maintain efficient inventory control while reducing unnecessary inventory warehousing. Wolf Motors could analyze the historical inventory turnover rates to diagnose the appropriate range of supplies that should be on hand in each and every category. WolfShow MoreRelatedOperations Management : Operation Management1355 Words   |  6 PagesOperations Management Introduction Operations management is the activity of managing the resources that create and deliver services and products. The operations function is the part of the organization that is responsible for this activity. Every organization has an operations function because every organization creates some type of services and/or products. However, not all types of organization will necessarily call the operations function by this name. Operations managers are the people who haveRead MoreOperation Management - Cadburyworld2493 Words   |  10 Pagestechnology to streamline the operation process) and facility costs (old and outdated facilities) at lowest possible. In return, they have to compromise low costs with their other objectives. The unskilled staffs and outdated facilities are compromised with the quality in the core process. For example, the brief video (facility) in the packaging plant is outdated and requires commentary notes from some guides. However, the unskilled guides are not familiar with the operations so they need to read fromRead MoreOperation Management And Operations Management2148 Words   |  9 PagesOperation management Introduction Being an operations manager is not an easy task, it involves good control and responsibilities for the major activities within the organisations in order to achieve goals that might be in form of services or in form of goods. The operation management roles may be different from business to business depending on the size and resources available, each organisation has its own operations functions, and in order to produces goods or services they have to convert theRead MoreImportance Of Production And Operations Management2317 Words   |  10 Pagesthe production and operation of enterprises. In order to remain competitive, companies in different countries have different factors of competitive advantage. 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Operations management is very significant in business operations since it forms the heart of the organisation by controlling the system of operation. Operations management deals with the design, operation, and enhancement of the systems that generate and deliverRead MoreOperations Management Chapter 18 Manual1950 Words   |  8 PagesChApter 18 Management of Waiting Lines Teaching Notes Some of the math and calculations can be left out in order to focus more clearly on the concepts of waiting lines. For example, all infinite source problems, including single channel (except constant service time) can be handled using the infinite source queuing table. In the past, queuing presented students with a good bit of computational requirements, and because of that, students frequently lost sight of the underlying concepts. WithRead MoreOperations Management1791 Words   |  8 PagesQUESTION 1 Operations management must be managed properly in order to improve an organization’s productivity and profitability. In the Cadbury World case, several micro and macro processes are involved and those processes bring some impacts to Cadbury World. Thus, Cadbury World must possess a sustainable micro and macro processes to achieve the best outcome and performance. Micro processes that involved are easily to manage compared to macro processes because macro processes are hard to manage

Thursday, December 26, 2019

USS Kentucky (BB-66) in World War II

USS Kentucky (BB-66) was an unfinished battleship that was started during World War II (1939-1945). Originally intended to be the second ship of the Montana-class of battleship, Kentucky was re-ordered in 1940 as the sixth and final ship of the US Navys Iowa-class of battleships. As construction moved forward, the US Navy found that it had a greater need for aircraft carriers than battleships. This led to designs to convert Kentucky into a carrier. These plans proved impractical and work resumed on the battleship but at a slow pace. Still incomplete at the end of the war, the US Navy then considered a variety of projects for converting Kentucky into a guided-missile battleship. These also proved fruitless and in 1958 the ship was sold for scrap.      A New Design In early 1938, work began on a new battleship type at the request of US Navy General Board chief Admiral Thomas C. Hart. First seen  as a larger version of the earlier  South Dakota-class, the new battleships were to carry twelve 16 guns or nine 18 guns. As the design evolved, the armament changed to nine 16 guns. In addition, the class anti-aircraft complement underwent several alterations  with the majority of its 1.1 weapons being replaced with 20 mm and 40 mm guns. Funding for the new ships came in May with the passage of the Naval Act of 1938. Dubbed the  Iowa-class, building  of the lead ship,  USS  Iowa  (BB-61), was assigned to the New York Navy Yard. Laid down in 1940,  Iowa  was to be the first of four battleships in the class. Fast Battleships Though hull numbers BB-65 and BB-66 were originally intended to be the first two ships of the new, larger  Montana-class, the approval of the Two Ocean Navy Act in July 1940 saw them re-designated as two additional  Iowa-class  battleships named USS  Illinois  and USS  Kentucky  respectively. As fast battleships, their 33-knot speed would permit them to serve as escorts for the new  Essex-class  carriers that were joining the fleet. Unlike the preceding  Iowa-class ships (Iowa,  New Jersey,  Missouri, and  Wisconsin),  Illinois  and  Kentucky  were to utilize all-welded construction which reduced weight while enhancing hull strength. Some conversation was also had as to whether to retain the heavy armor arrangement initially planned for the  Montana-class. Though this would have improved the battleships protection, it would also have greatly lengthened construction time.   As a result, standard  Iowa-class armor was ordered.   Ã‚   USS Kentucky(BB-66) - Overview Nation:  United StatesType:  BattleshipShipyard:  Norfolk Naval ShipyardLaid Down:  March 7, 1942Fate:  Scrapped, October 31, 1958 Specifications (Planned) Displacement:  45,000 tonsLength:  887.2 ft.Beam:  108 ft., 2 in.Draft:  28.9  ft.Speed:  33  knotsComplement:  2,788 (Planned) Guns 9 Ãâ€" 16 in./50 cal Mark 7 guns20 Ãâ€" 5 in./38 cal Mark 12 guns80 Ãâ€" 40 mm/56 cal anti-aircraft guns49 Ãâ€" 20 mm/70 cal anti-aircraft cannons Construction The second ship to carry the name USS Kentucky, the first being the Kearsarge-class USS Kentucky (BB-6) commissioned in 1900, BB-65 was laid down at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard on March 7, 1942.   Following the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, the US Navy recognized that the need for additional aircraft carriers and other vessels superseded that for more battleships. As a result, construction of Kentucky was halted and on June 10, 1942, the bottom section of the battleship was launched to make room for Landing Ship, Tank (LST) construction. The next two years saw designers explore options for converting Illinois and Kentucky into carriers. The finalized conversion plan would have resulted in two carriers similar in appearance to the Essex-class. In addition to their air wings, they would have carried twelve 5 guns in four twin and four single mounts. Reviewing these plans, it was soon found that the converted battleships aircraft capacity would be less than the Essex-class and that the construction process would take longer than building a new carrier from scratch. As a result, it was decided to complete both vessels as battleships but very low priority was given to their construction.   Moved back to the slipway on December 6, 1944, construction of  Kentucky slowly resumed through 1945. With the end of the war, discussion ensued regarding completing the vessel as an anti-aircraft battleship. This led to work halting in August 1946.   Two years later, construction again moved forward though using the original plans. On January 20, 1950,  work ceased and Kentucky was moved from its dry dock to make space for repair work on Missouri.    Plans, But No Action Moved to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Kentucky, which had been completed to its main deck, served as a supply hulk for the reserve fleet from 1950 to 1958. During this period, several plans were advanced with the idea of converting the vessel into a guided missile battleship. These moved forward and in 1954 Kentucky was renumbered from BB-66 to BBG-1. Despite this, the program was cancelled two years later. Another missile option called for the mounting of two Polaris ballistic missile launchers in the ship.   As in the past, nothing came from these plans. In 1956, after Wisconsin suffered a collision with the destroyers USS Eaton, Kentuckys bow was removed and used to repair the other battleship. Though Kentucky Congressman William H. Natcher attempted to block the sale of Kentucky, the US Navy elected to strike it from the Naval Vessel Register on June 9, 1958. That October, the hulk was sold to the Boston Metals Company of Baltimore and scrapped. Prior to disposal, its turbines were removed and used aboard the fast combat support ships USS Sacramento and USS Camden.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Descriptive Essay - Original Writing - 938 Words

When I wake up, my head is screaming. There is a shrieking, a noise beyond loud, coming from somewhere nearby, but that’s not the worst part. My head itself is pounding. The searing pain is so bad that spots of black dance in my vision. I can make out the sound of my name, being called out over and over again. Tessa, Tessa, Tessa. Where am I? The ground seems to be shaking. I’m lying on the cold, hard, cement. I open my eyes, the pounding is letting up, at least a little. The shrieking is coming from a huge machine that seems to be flying past me. Suddenly, a familiar face is standing above me. â€Å"Tessa?† he asks, quieter now. His ebony hair creates a shadow over his eyes as he looks down at me. The dark lighting makes his usually pale skin even lighter. The left side of his face is covered in a web of scars, starting near his hairline and running down to the corner of his eye. â€Å"Saxton,† I groan. Talking definitely doesn’t help my head. â€Å"What are you doing here? It’s the middle of the night.† I try to shake my head, but that’s worse. â€Å"I- I don’t know.† He reaches for my hand and helps me up. My body aches from laying on the cement for so long, and my knees are weak. He drapes one of his long, slender arms around me, to hold me up. Looking around now, things start to make a little sense. We are standing on a train platform, a train has just passed. That explains all the terrible noise. â€Å"Let’s get you home,† Saxton whispers to me, and we take off. It takes what seems likeShow MoreRelatedDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1110 Words   |  5 PagesI don’t know how I got to where I am, but I’m here now, and I have to win if I want to live. I am in a game, and in order to live, I have to escape. That’s the thing, though: I don’t know how to escape. I was running for my life around this old house that looked like it came straight out of a horror movie. I doubled over and held my head in pain as I saw the static, which meant it was coming. I was being chased by what looked like a person but in no way acted like one. Just as it was about to appearRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1102 Words   |  5 PagesIt is on days like this when we stop to think about our life. Small drops of rain begin to dapple the cobblestone pavement as people whip out their umbrellas for cover. I continue sauntering down the busy street, relishing the feeling of a light shower. Moving with the mass of pedestrians, I stop at a crosswalk where I wait for the stoplight to turn green. A flower shop employee across the street scurries to bring in the numerous bouquets and close the doors as rain starts rolling down the displayRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing914 Words   |  4 PagesDreamy I thought. Standing on the corner is a young guy with a smile. I see him here almost every day, so I linger for a while. He tells me his name, and I tell him mine. I m Ester, what s your name? I enquired. My names David .,He replied. We end up talking for a while and I asked him if he had ever left this city. He tells me of all these stories of the places where he s been, the distant lakes and mountains, and in valleys oh so green. I can see it in his eyes, he really has beenRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing974 Words   |  4 Pages I was used to moving round, having a mother who liked to travel more than making roots was something I had gotten used to. Still, I had never gotten used to the loneliness of an empty house when she was out exploring, or the feeling of leaving behind someone who could have meant something to me. Our most recent move was Oregon. It was pretty, and I didn’t mind it, but it was much different than Florida. Not only was it opposite sides of the country, it felt as if it were opposite worlds. InRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1012 Words   |  5 Pageshave plenty of time in the next month to think about my feeling in regards to Kendrick. I needed to finish up the article and get it off to my editor. I should be able to get it done by tonight and send an email in the morning. I was thinking of writing my next article about the sea life around the Scottish coast. Since our salmon dinner last evening I thought I would do a piece about the commercial salmon farming that began in Scotland in 1969. In 2002 over 145,000 metric tons of farmed AtlanticRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1561 Words   |  7 PagesThere’s something I need to say and what follows may not be something that you’d expect, it won’t be heartening or uplifting. If you remember today, I told you about going somewhere I wanted to go to†¦ I’m not sure if you believed and accepted what I now confess as untrue; it is partly. I needed to pull away emo tionally†¦ from you. You must have had fathomed that some degree of formality had seeped between us. Born of habit, formulaic greetings had become a routine. You presume that I’m a close friendRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1387 Words   |  6 PagesI was wearing a beautiful blue dress with sapphire gems all around the chest area as I entered the ball with Ciel and Sebastian. I took a good look around here, the hallway was lined with gold. There was a servant ready to escort us to the ball room. Hello, come this way. He said, walking forward. Wow, this place is so fancy! I exclaimed, looking around. It s fake gold. Ciel bluntly replied, bringing my hopes down. I sighed. Ciel sounded like he wasn t in a very good mood. Ciel, lightenRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1287 Words   |  6 Pages In the morning, Caireann woke me up. She stood above my bed, shaking my shoulder. I opened my eyes, looking at her. Then I looked across the room to her empty bed. Andy s empty bed sat in the corner. I swallowed, climbing out of bed. Sleep well? Caireann asked me, starting out the door. Yeah, I said, going over to our small dresser. I had the bottom two drawers. Andy had the middle two, and Caireann had the top. I pulled open the drawers, pulling on a colorful tank top and a grayRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1345 Words   |  6 PagesLater that night, I was behind the wheel of my G-Wagon with Melissa in the passenger seat. She didn’t feel like driving since she was on the road all day and I understood so I didn’t mind when she asked me to. I had been tight-lipped. She kept eyeballing me as if she detected that something was bothering me but I just kept singing to my India Arie as if I was carefree. â€Å"So are you going to tell me what’s going on or no† Melissa said disrupting my own personal concert. I stopped singing and tookRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1085 Words   |  5 PagesI WAS SITTING IN a taxi, wondering if I had overdressed for the evening, when I looked out the window and saw Mom rooting through a Dumpster. It was just after dark. A blustery March wind whipped the steam coming out of the manholes, and people hurried along the sidewalks with their collars turned up. I was stuck in traffic two blocks from the party where I was heading. Mom stood fifteen feet away. She had tied rags around her shoulders to keep out the spring chill and was picking through the trash

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Culture Of India Essay Research Paper Culture free essay sample

Culture Of India Essay, Research Paper Culture of India About one sixth of all the human existences on Earth live in India, the universe # 8217 ; s most thickly settled democracy. Officially titled the Republic of India, it? s 1,269,413 sq. myocardial infarction. prevarication in South Asia, busying most of the Indian subcontinent, bordered by Pakistan ( W ) ; China, Nepal, and Bhutan ( N ) ; and Myanmar ( E ) and Bangladesh forms an enclave in the NE. Its boundary lines encompass a huge assortment of peoples, practising most of the universe # 8217 ; s major faiths, talking tonss of different linguistic communications, divided into 1000s of socially sole castes, and uniting the physical traits of several major racial groups ( Compton? s ) . The modern state of India ( besides known by its antediluvian Hindi name, Bharat ) is smaller than the Indian Empire once ruled by Britain. Burma ( now Myanmar ) , a chiefly Buddhist state lying to the E, was administratively detached from India in 1937. We will write a custom essay sample on Culture Of India Essay Research Paper Culture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ten old ages subsequently, when Britain granted independency to the peoples of the Indian subcontinent, two parts with Muslim bulks # 8211 ; a big one in the north-west ( West Pakistan ) and a smaller one in the nor-east ( East Pakistan ) # 8211 ; were partitioned from the preponderantly Hindu countries and became the separate state of Pakistan. East Pakistan broke away from Pakistan in 1971 to organize the independent state of Bangladesh. Besides surrounding India on its long northern frontier are the People # 8217 ; s Republic of China and the comparatively little lands of Nepal and Bhutan. The island democracy of Sri Lanka lies merely off India # 8217 ; s southern tip ( New World Encyclopedia ) . Much of India # 8217 ; s country of about 1.3 million square stat mis ( 3.3 million square kilometres # 8211 ; including the Pakistani-held portion of Jammu and Kashmir ) is a peninsula protrusion into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea on the West and the Bay of Bengal on the E. There are three distinguishable physiographic parts. In the North the high extremums of the Himalayas prevarication partially in India but largely merely beyond its boundary lines in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet. South of the mountains, the low-lying Indo-Gangetic Plain, shared with Pakistan and Bangladesh, extends more than 1,500 stat mis ( 2,400 kilometres ) from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal ( Compton? s ) . Finally, the peninsular plateau, mostly the Deccan, together with its next coastal fields, makes up more than half of the state # 8217 ; s country. In general, India # 8217 ; s clime is governed by the monsoon, or seasonal, rain-bearing air current. Most of the state has three seasons: hot, wet, and cool. During the hot season, which normally lasts from early March to mid-June, really high temperatures are accompanied by intermittent air currents and occasional dust storms ( Concise ) . Strong, humid air currents from the sou-west and south normally lasts from early March to mid-June, really high temperatures are accompanied by intermittent air currents and occasional dust storms. Most of the far nor-east ( north and E of Bangladesh ) , northern West Bengal, and the West seashore from Cochin to somewhat north of Bombay acquire more than 80 inches ( 200 centimetres ) of rainfall yearly. This is normally plenty to maintain the dirt moist throughout the twelvemonth. The natural flora associated with these parts is an extremely varied, broadleaf, evergreen rain forest, typically tall and dense. Much of the rain wood, nevertheless, is in hilly parts that have been repeatedly burned over and cleared for slash-and-burn agribusiness, a type of farming peculiarly associated with India # 8217 ; s tribal population. As a consequence, the dirt has become less fertile. Where the wood has grown once more, it is by and large lower and less unfastened than the original flora ( New World Encyclopedia ) . It is non certain which racial group foremost occupied India. The premise is frequently made that the first dwellers had features in common with the small-statured, dark, Aboriginal population of Australia, every bit good as with other tribal groups still found in stray, forested parts of Southeast Asia. Therefore, the term proto-Australoid has been applied to the racial type represented by a figure of folks still populating in India, chiefly in the provinces of Bihar, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh. Other early reachings were the ascendants of the peoples, now populating chiefly in southern India, who speak linguistic communications of the Dravidian household. The Mongoloid peoples have besides been in India a long clip. Their contemporary posterities include several tribal groups populating along the frontiers with Myanmar, China ( Tibet ) , Bhutan, and Nepal. Linguistic differences are much clearer than those of racial groupings. Two lingual groups, the Indo-european and the Dravidian, history for all but a bantam proportion of the population ( Compton? s ) . Of the Indo-european linguistic communications, Hindi, the official national linguistic communication, is the most of import. In its criterion signifier and its many idioms, it is spoken by about 43 per centum of the population and is understood by a big figure of others. It is prevailing in the northern and cardinal parts. Included among the Hindi fluctuations is Urdu, referred to until 1947 as Hindustani or Khari Boli, which is recognized as a separate # 8220 ; official # 8221 ; linguistic communication in the Indian fundamental law. Urdu is besides the official linguistic communication of Pakistan and is spoken by most Indian Muslims ( except in the far south and east ) . Other of import Indo-european linguistic communications are Bengali ( the official linguistic communication of the province of West Bengal and besides of Bangladesh ) , Panjabi ( the official linguistic communication of the province of Punjab and the most widely spoken linguistic communication of Pakistan ) , and Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Assamese, and Kashmiri ( severally, the official linguistic communications of the provinces of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Orissa, Assam, and Jammu and Kashmir ) . Two other linguistic communications of the Indo-european household are among the 15 regarded as official linguistic communications by the fundamental law: Sanskrit, a classical literary linguistic communication, and Sindhi, spoken mostly in the Sind state of Pakistan and besides by Hindu refugees who came to India after divider in 1947. The list of official linguistic communications includes four Dravidian linguas: Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, and Kannada, which predominate, severally, in the southern provinces of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka ( Compton? s ) . English is understood by most educated individuals. While it is non one of the 15 linguistic communications, it is officially recognized and is used, for illustration, for correspondence between Hindi-speaking and non-Hindi-speaking provinces. It is besides the linguistic communication shared by the Dravidian-speaking South and the Hindi-speaking North. Of the tonss of linguistic communications non officially recognized, many are spoken about entirely by tribal peoples, known jointly as Adibasis ( New World Encyclopedia ) . Though a figure of faiths flourish in India # 8217 ; s tolerant societal clime, four fifths of the people are Hindus. Hinduism evolved from Vedism, the faith of the early Aryan encroachers. While it recognizes countless Gods, they are widely regarded as diverse manifestations of one great cosmopolitan spirit. Hinduism has no standard Orthodox signifier. It is, in consequence, what people who call themselves Hindus do in transporting out their Dharma, or spiritual duties. This varies well from one part and societal group to another. The societal groups with which Hindus identify most strongly are their jatis, or castes. A caste is a familial group whose members intermarry merely among themselves. Each has its ain beginning myth, traditional business, regulations associating to kinship, diet, and assorted signifiers of behaviour. Castes are graded in a societal and ritual hierarchy in which each expects regard from inferior groups and gives regard to superior 1s. While evidently making disparities, the caste system is non regarded by most Hindus as unjust. Harmonizing to by and large accepted beliefs associated with reincarnation, or metempsychosis after decease, the caste into which one is born depends on one # 8217 ; s karma # 8211 ; that is, one # 8217 ; s accumulated good and bad workss in old beings. The manner to accomplish higher position in future embodiments is to accept one # 8217 ; s station in life and unrecorded consequently. This is the way that may finally take to redemption, called moksha, freedom from the uninterrupted unit of ammunition of metempsychosiss ( New World Encyclopedia ) . Moslems, who constitute 11 per centum of the population, are the largest spiritual minority. Many of these followings of the monotheistic religion of Islam are posterities of encroachers from the Middle East and Cardinal Asia who began come ining the subcontinent every bit early as the eighth century. Most, nevertheless, are posterities of converts from Hinduism and other religions. The bulk belong to the Sunnah subdivision of Islam, though the Shi # 8217 ; ah religious order is good represented among Moslem merchandising groups of Gujarat. Although Islam, unlike Hinduism, stresses the equality of people, the establishment of caste is so strong in the subcontinent that it has affected the communities professing Islam and most other religions. Therefore, most Indian Muslims intermarry within graded, castelike groups, many of which have traditional businesss. Muslims form a bulk of the population in Jammu and Kashmir and significant minorities in the provinces of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, and Kerala. Sikhs, with 2.6 per centum of the population, are prevailing in the province of Punjab. Their religion, which day of the months from the early sixteenth century, combines facets of Hinduism, such as belief in reincarnation, with thoughts borrowed from Islam, in peculiar rigorous belief in merely one God. A hawkish brotherhood, they are recognizable by their typical face funguss and turbans. Sikhs form a outstanding portion of India # 8217 ; s ground forces and are influential in many professions and in authorities ( Concise ) . Families frequently consist of more than one married twosome. These joint households are normally headed by a senior male, whose married woman, female parent, or another related senior female assigns domestic jobs to the adult females and misss. By and large the drawn-out household may include his single kids, his younger brothers and their married womans and single kids, his single sisters, and his married boies and grandsons and their married womans and single kids. In pattern, nevertheless, brothers normally separate and form new families shortly after the decease of their male parent. Over most of India ( though non in the South or nor-east ) , a miss marries outside her small town, normally while still in her teens. Even where a female marries within the small town, she moves to the hubby # 8217 ; s family. Widow remarriage is frowned upon. Married couples expose a pronounced penchant for male kids. Male childs are desired non merely because of their awaited part to the household income but besides because boies are needed to execute certain rites at a parent # 8217 ; s cremation. Girls, on the other manus, are seen as a liability because they require expensive doweries when they are married. Assorted province authoritiess have tried to deter this pattern, but frequently households still go into debt to supply doweries ; a household with several girls and no boies may confront fiscal catastrophe. Boys are expected to aid in the Fieldss and misss in the place. The freedom that misss enjoy is restricted after they reach the age of pubescence ; in northern India, even among the Hindus, female privacy is common ( New World Encyclopedia ) . Most villagers are husbandmans. The bulk own some land, normally in scattered packages, but a significant figure must lease all or portion of the land they farm, either for hard currency or for an agreed-upon portion of the crop. The sum depends on whether the agriculturist or the landlord pays for seed and irrigation H2O, and on who provides the animate beings for ploughing. Shares typically range from one tierce to one half the crop. Many households, particularly among the scheduled castes, have no land at all, and both grownups and kids must sell their labour to the larger husbandmans. The simple tools used by most Indian husbandmans are by and large made in the small towns. Plows are wooden, with short Fe tips. They furrow but do non turn the dirt. Draft animate beings are chiefly oxen in the desiccant parts and H2O American bison in the wetting agent, rice-growing countries. Both cowss and H2O American bison are milked, but outputs are low. Conveyance is still mostly by oxcart or buffalo cart, though the usage of trucks is deriving as a consequence of route betterment. Tract or cultivation is rare except in Haryana and the Punjab ( Compton? s ) . Goods and services that are non available locally are obtained from nearby small towns, at hebdomadal outdoor markets, in towns and metropoliss, and at carnivals, normally held in connexion with spiritual vacations. Payment for goods and services provided within the small town may be either in hard currency or in sort. The latter type of payment, normally a part of grain at the clip of crop, used to be the customary regulation. Most specialized-caste households catered to a peculiar set of frequenter households, known as jajmans, with whom they were linked by familial ties. This jajmani system is interrupting down over most of India, but patron-client confederations among assorted castes remain a common characteristic of village life. Most small towns have at least a primary school offering up to six old ages of direction. Some besides offer grownup instruction categories in the eventide. While few small towns can back up a well-trained physician, many have practicians of traditional medical specialty. Government-aided dispensaries are progressively common. For amusement work forces join their fellow caste members or those from castes at degrees near to their ain to go through the eventide hours smoking and chew the fating. Womans and misss talk at the small town good and may fall in groups to sing spiritual vocals. Male young persons sometimes form athleticss nines or play groups. Village-owned wirelesss set up in public infinites are common, but telecasting is rare. Traveling narrators, instrumentalists, acrobats, and snake smoothies relieve the dowdiness of life, as do nuptialss, spiritual jubilations, trips to local carnivals, and occasional spiritual pilgrims journeies. India # 8217 ; s present fundamental law went into consequence on Jan. 26, 1950. At that clip, the state changed its position from a rule to a federal democracy, though it remained within the Commonwealth. The governor- general, appointed by the British Crown, was replaced by a president, chosen by an electoral college. The president is the official head of province, but the office is mostly ceremonial. Village authorities is in the custodies of a democratically elected council, known as a panchayet, presided over by a small town headsman. In former yearss virtually all panchayat members were work forces of the upper castes, normally those who owned the most land. Now many provinces require that a certain figure of adult females and members of scheduled castes be included. Increasingly, elections are held by secret ballot. The panchayets are expected to work closely with the government-sponsored Community Development Program, which has divided the full state into community development blocks, averaging about a hundred small towns each. Village-level workers within each block are the main links between the authorities and the villagers. They bring intelligence to the villagers of developments that might profit them and describe back the sentiments of the people ( Concise ) . The artistic and literary heritage of India is exceptionally rich. Probably most renowned are the state # 8217 ; s architectural chef-doeuvres. These day of the month from many different ages. The ancient Buddhist domed tope, or shrine, at Sanchi was likely begun by the emperor Asoka in the mid-3rd century BC. The Kailasa Temple at Ellora was carved out of solid stone in the eighth century. The tremendous, intricately sculptured Sun Temple at Konarak day of the months from the thirteenth century, and the Minakshi Temple in Madurai, with its striking outer towers and interior Hall of 1,000 Pillars, from the sixteenth century. The empyreal Taj Mahal at Agra was built in the seventeenth century by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his favourite married woman. Every major part and spiritual group of India has produced plants of extraordinary virtue. Hindu and Jaina temples are normally amply embellished by sculpture. Because of the Islamic resistance to representative art, mosques are relatively severe and rely for adornment mostly on inlaid stonework, cosmetic tiles, geometric designs in rock, plaster, or wood, and ornate penmanship ( Compton? s ) . Painting is comparatively less developed, and much of the work of the yesteryear has fallen victim to conditions. However, the well-preserved, sensuous cave pictures at Ajanta, dating from the first century BC to the seventh century AD, demonstrate great proficient proficiency at an early day of the month. Altogether different is the lyric and romantic manner of the assorted schools of illumination picture that flourished in the tribunals of the Mughals and the Rajput princes in the 16th and subsequent centuries. Modern picture, inspired by both European and Far Eastern theoretical accounts, has had several internationally recognized advocates. Classical Indian music, dance, and play are closely linked. Their roots travel back about 2,000 old ages. Their command calls for great subject and intensive pattern. Each has a conventionalized # 8220 ; linguistic communication # 8221 ; that demands considerable edification on the portion of the audience. As with architecture, a figure of regional manners have developed. Folk music and dance besides show broad regional fluctuations ( Compton? s ) . The literature of India screens many Fieldss of cognition, but spiritual and philosophical texts are peculiarly legion. The oldest spiritual texts, the Vedas ( get downing with the # 8216 ; Rig-Veda # 8217 ; around 1500 BC, were transmitted merely by word of oral cavity for many centuries before being committed to composing. For most Hindus the two best-known texts are the great heroic poems, the # 8216 ; Ramayana # 8217 ; and the # 8216 ; Mahabharata # 8217 ; , composed approximately 2,000 old ages ago. The former recounts the escapades of the god-king Rama and provides theoretical accounts of proper behavior for both work forces and adult females. The latter, the longest verse form of all time written, relates a great fabulous war affecting all the peoples of ancient India. The most of import part of that heroic poem, the # 8216 ; Bhagavadgita # 8217 ; , is the chief Hindu piece of land on morality and moralss ( Compton? s ) . Indian Muslim literature covers a broad scope of practical topics. However, the authorization of the Koran, Islam # 8217 ; s holy book, leaves small room for spiritual guess. Poetry is peculiarly admired. Plants Cited India. Compton? s Encyclopedia Online. 1 November 1999 hypertext transfer protocol: // # 8217 ; fastweb? getdoc+viewcomptons+A+3993+35++India # 8217 ; . hypertext markup language India. Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Third Edition. 1 November 1999. India. New World Encyclopedia. New York: Pelican, 1995. MLA. Modern Language Association. 23 October 1999 hypertext transfer protocol: // Fact Summary Official Name: Republic of India. Capital: New Delhi. India: Indus, from Sanskrit Sindhu mentioning to Indus River. National Emblem: Adapted from Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka in 1950. Four king of beastss ( one of which is concealed from position ) standing back to endorse with wheel in the centre of the abacus ; a bull on the right, a Equus caballus on the left, and the lineations of the other wheels on the utmost right and left. The words Satyameva jayate ( Truth Alone Triumphs ) are inscribed below the wheel in the Devanagari book. Anthem: # 8216 ; Jana Gana Mana # 8217 ; ( Lord of the People, of Society, and of the Mind ) . NATURAL FEATURES Boundary lines: Coast, 3,533 stat mis ( 5,686 kilometres ) ; land frontier, 9,425 stat mis ( 15,168 kilometres ) . Natural Regions: Himalaya ; Indo-Gangetic Plain ; Deccan. Major Scopes: Himayalas, Karakoram, Vindbya, Aravalli, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats. Major Extremums: Nanda Devi, 25,646 pess ( 7,817 metres ) ; Kamet, 25,447 pess ( 7,756 metres ) ; Anai Mudi, 8,842 pess ( 2,695 metres ) . Major Rivers: Ganges, Yamuna ( Jumna ) , Brahmaputra, Narbada, Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri. Noteworthy Lake: Wular. Major Islands: Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep. Climate: Three seasons for most of the state # 8211 ; cold season from November to February ; hot season from March to June ; rainy season from June to October. THE Peoples Population ( 1996 estimation ) : 952,969,000 ; 733.1 individuals per square stat mi ( 288.8 individuals per square kilometre ) ; 26.8 per centum urban, 73.2 per centum rural ( 1995 estimation ) . Critical Statisticss ( estimated rate per 1,000 population ) : Births, 26.5 ; deceases, 9.8. Life Expectancy ( at birth ) : Males, 58.7 old ages ; females, 59.8. Major Languages: Hindi ( functionary ) , English ( functionary ) , Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese. Major Religions: Hindooism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism. Major CITIES ( 1991 estimation ) Bombay ( 9,925,891 ) Major port and fiscal and commercial centre of India ; capital of Maharashtra province ; good known for cotton-textile, movie, and printing industry ; Victoria Gardens, Brabourne Stadium, and Marine Drive. Delhi ( 7,206,704 ) Capital of India ; political, educational, cultural, and transit centre ; Red Fort, Cardinal Secretariat, Parliament House, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Qutab Minar, and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Calcutta ( 4,399,819 ) Major port, capital of West Bengal province ; cultural, commercial, spiritual, educational, and political centerError! Bookmark non defined.. Madras ( 3,841,396 ) Major port and capital of Tamil Nadu province ; educational, transit, cultural and traditional handcraft centre ; the Indian Institute of Technology, University of Madras, the Madras Government Museum, Napier Park, Marina beach, and the Corporation Stadium. Bangalore ( 3,302,296 ) Capital of Karnataka province ; taking cultural, educational, industrial, publication, and transit centre of south India ; Vidhana Saudha, Mysore Government Museum, Lal Bagh, and Hesaraghatta Lake. Hyderabad ( 3,145,939 ) Capital of Andhra Pradesh province ; educational, cultural, industrial, commercial, and handcraft centre ; the Char Minar, Mecca Masjid, Salar Jung Museum, and racetrack. Ahmadabad ( 2,954,526 ) Industrial, commercial, fiscal, and educational metropolis ; major cotton-textile centre, Lake Kankaria, Gandhi Ashram, Jama Masjid, Tin Darwaza ( Three Gates ) , and the Tomb of Ahmad Shah. Kanpur ( 1,879,420 ) Industrial and commercial metropolis ; rail and lead junction ; Kanpur University, the Indian Institute of Technology, and a Hindu glass temple, camp, and Sati Chaura. Nagpur ( 1,624,752 ) Transportation system, industrial, educational, agricultural, and cultural centre ; British Fort, Ambajheri Tank, Bhonsla Palace, Kasturchand Park, and Secretariat. Lucknow ( 1,619,115 ) Capital of Uttar Pradesh province ; transit, commercial, educational, cultural, and handcraft centre ; Hazratganj, Great Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Residency, botanical and zoological gardens. Pune ( 1,566,651 ) Educational, cultural, commercial, and industrial centre ; Empress Gardens, Wellesley Bridge, Deccan College, Statue of Shivaji, and Shanwar Wada ( Saturday Palace ) . Economy Chief Agricultural Products: Crops # 8211 ; sugar cane, rice, wheat, maize ( corn ) , sorghum, millet, Mangifera indicas, bananas, oranges, lemons, calcium hydroxides, apples oil-rich seeds, pulsations, coconuts. Livestock # 8211 ; cowss, caprine animals, H2O American bison, sheep. Chief Mined Merchandises: Limestone, Fe ore, bauxite, manganese, Cr, Zn, Cu, lead, gold, diamonds, coal, petroleum crude oil, natural gas. Chief Manufactured Products: Cement, finished steel, steel metal bars, refined sugar, fertilisers, paper and poster board, bikes, bikes and scooters, cotton fabric. Foreign Trade: Imports 59 per centum, exports 41 per centum. Chief Imports: Fuel oil and refined crude oil merchandises, chemicals, fertilisers, Fe and steel, machinery, vegetable oils, unsmooth diamonds, conveyance equipment, electrical machinery, groceries. Chief Exports: Handicrafts, technology goods, tea, fish, fruits and veggies, java, fabric narration and cloths, vesture, leather, cherished and semiprecious rocks, Fe ore, route motor vehicles, plants of art, baccy, Fe and steel. Chief Trading Spouses: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Saudi Arabia. Monetary Unit of measurement: 1 Indian rupee = 100 paisa. Education Public Schools: Lower primary ( age 6-10 ) is free throughout India ; secondary ( age 11-17 ) is free in most countries. Compulsory School Age: From 6 to 14 in all provinces except Nagaland and Himachal Pradesh. Literacy: 52 per centum. Leading Universities: More than 100 ;

Monday, December 2, 2019

Learning Theory Application in Classroom Essay Example

Learning Theory Application in Classroom Paper PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING (ED504) MODULE 2: MAIN ASSESSMENT QUESTION 2: Imagine you are on your break hour at school and you walked into the staff lounge to discover Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson and Kohlberg are there. Their conversation is about learning and development. Write a paper tracing the conversation between each of these theorists. Be sure to accurately reflect the stance that each theorist would take. What would be the implications of any one of the theorist as a teacher and how could the theory be applied to the classroom? VTDI) This Paper is in Partial Completion Fulfilment of a POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING Date: October 13, 2011 Piaget, Vygotsky, Erikson and Kohlberg individually expounded their views on learning and development as outlined below. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory consists of four stages of intellectual development. Stage 1—Sensorimotor Stage. Birth to age 2. The child recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally. The child realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense. Stage 2—Preoperational Stage Age 2-7. Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Children learn through imitation and play during this stage. They begin to use reasoning; however it is mainly intuitive, instead of logical. Stage 3—Concrete Operational Stage Age 7- 11. Can thinks logically about objects and events. However this is confined to their level. Stage 4—Formal Operational Stage Age 11-adulthood. Can think logically about conceptual scheme and test hypotheses systematically. Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development shows that personality emerges from a series of conflicts. We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Theory Application in Classroom specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Theory Application in Classroom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Learning Theory Application in Classroom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These conflicts arise at eight stages over the entire life cycle. These crises if resolve or unresolved can result in a greater sense of self or can lead to maladjustment respectively. Below is an outline of the steps and psychosocial interactions involved. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to Year). Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. Autonomy vs. Shame (2-3 years). Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschooler , 4-5years). Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Industry vs. Inferiority (School-Age Child, 6-11years). Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescent, 12-18 years). Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adult 18-35 years). Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle-aged Adult, 35-65 years). At this stage the middle adult needs to work to establish stability and attempt to produce something that makes a difference to society. Integrity vs. Despair (Older Adult, over 65years). Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfilment. Lawrence Kohlberg concludes that morality develops in stages. Kohlbergs six stages can be more generally grouped into three levels of two stages each which are outlined below. Level 1 (Pre-Conventional). This is generally found at the elementary school level. Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation. People behave according to socially acceptable norms. This obedience is forced by the threat or application of punishment. Stage 2: Self-interest orientation. This stage is characterized by a view that right behaviour means acting in ones own best interests Level 2 (Conventional). This is generally found in society. Stage 3: Interpersonal accord and compliance, is regarded as an attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others. Stage 4: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation. This stage is one adjusted to abiding by the law and responding to the obligations of duty. Level 3 (Post-Conventional). It is felt that this is not reached by the majority of adults. Stage5. Social contract orientation. Is an understanding of social support and a genuine interest in the welfare of others. Stage 6. Universal ethical principles. Is based on respect for universal principle and the demands of individual conscience Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences (Crawford, 1996). His major themes are outlined below: 1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.. He states: â€Å"Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). † (Vygotsky, 1978). 2. Anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept can serve as a guide to support cognitive growth. 3. According to Vygotsky, the Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. Vygotsky believes, learning occurred in this zone. The implications of Vygotsky’s theory for the teacher are that it promotes learning in the contexts where students play an active role in learning. Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning development in students. Knowing both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development is useful for teachers, for these levels indicate where the child is at a given moment as well as where the child is going. According to Vygotsky, for the curriculum to be developmentally appropriate, the teacher must plan activities that encompass not only what children are capable of doing on their own but what they can learn with the help of others (Karpov Haywood, 1998). Vygotsky’s theory can be applied in the classroom. Vygotsky’s theory does not mean that anything can be taught to any child. Only instruction and activities that fall within the zone promote development. For example, if a child cannot identify the sounds in a word even after many prompts, the child may not benefit immediately from instruction in this skill. Practice of previously known skills and introduction of concepts that are too difficult and complex have little positive impact. Teachers can use information about both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in organizing classroom activities in the following ways: †¢Instruction can be planned to provide practice in the zone of proximal development for individual children or for groups of hildren. Scaffolding (Wood, Bruner, Ross, 1976) is a tactic for helping the child in his or her zone of proximal development in which the adult provides hints and prompts at different levels. † (Wood, Bruner, Ross, 1976). For example In a high school laboratory science class, a teacher might provide scaffolding by first giving students de tailed guides to carrying out experiments, then giving them brief outlines that they might use to structure experiments, and finally asking them to set up experiments entirely on their own. Cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of children at different levels who can help each other learn. I can be conclude therefore, that a careful application of the theories put forward by these researchers will greatly enhance learning in the classroom References Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Piagets developmental theory [On-line: UK] retrieved 8 October 2011 from http://www. learningandteaching. info/learning/piaget. htm Crawford, K. (1996) Vygotskian approaches to human development in the information era. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62. Karpov, Y. , Haywood, H. C. (1998). Two ways to elaborate Vygotskys concept of mediation: Implications for instruction. American Psychologist, 53(1), 27-36. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, October). Erikson’s Stages of Development at Learning-Theories. com. Retrieved October 8th, 2011 from http://www. learning-theories. com/eriksons-stages-of-development. html Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, October). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning-Theories. com. Retrieved October 8th, 2011 from http://www. learning-theories. com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory. html Robert N. Barger, Ph. D. (2000) A Summary of Lawerence Kohlbergs, Stages of Moral Development retrieved October 7th, 2011 from http://www. csudh. edu/dearhabermas/kohlberg01bk. htm . Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wood, D. J. , Bruner, J. S. , Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(2), 89-100